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Mitosis And Meiosis Quiz Ap Biology Essay

  • 1. 

    The centromere is a region in which

    • A. 

      Chromatids are attached to one another.

    • B. 

      Metaphase chromosomes become aligned.

    • C. 

      Chromosomes are grouped during telophase.

    • D. 

      The nucleus is located prior to mitosis.

    • E. 

      New spindle microtubules form.

  • 2. 

    What is a chromatid?

    • A. 

      A chromosome in G1 of the cell cycle

    • B. 

    • C. 

      A chromosome found outside the nucleus

    • D. 

      A special region that holds two centromeres together

    • E. 

      Another name for the chromosomes found in genetics

  • 3. 

    What is the name for the special region on a duplicated chromosome that holds the sister chromatids together?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

      Microtubule organizer region

  • 4. 

    Starting with a fertilized egg (zygote), a series of five cell divisions would produce an early embryo with how many cells?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 5. 

    If there are 20 chromatids in a cell, how many centromeres are there?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 6. 

    Which of the following statements is not true?

    • A. 

      Mitosis produces new nuclei with exactly the same chromosomal endowment as the parent nucleus.

    • B. 

      Mitosis may occur without cytokinesis.

    • C. 

      Mitosis and cytokinesis are required for asexual reproduction.

    • D. 

      All cells come from a preexisting cell.

    • E. 

      The mitotic spindles in prokaryotic cells are composed of microtubules.

  • 7. 

    The lettered circle in the figure above shows a diploid nucleus with four chromosomes. There are two pairs of homologous chromosomes, one long and the other short. One haploid set is symbolized as black and the other haploid set is gray. The chromosomes in the unlettered circle have not yet replicated. Choose the correct chromosomal conditions for the following stage. *At prometaphase of mitosis

  • 8. 

    The lettered circle in the figure above shows a diploid nucleus with four chromosomes. There are two pairs of homologous chromosomes, one long and the other short. One haploid set is symbolized as black and the other haploid set is gray. The chromosomes in the unlettered circle have not yet replicated. Choose the correct chromosomal conditions for the following stage. one daughter nucleus at telophase of mitosis

  • 9. 

                    A.     telophase                 B.     anaphase                 C.     prometaphase                 D.     metaphase                 E.     prophase Choose the answer from the above that best fits the description: Two centrosomes are arranged at opposite poles of the cell.

  • 10. 

                    A.     telophase                 B.     anaphase                 C.     prometaphase                 D.     metaphase                 E.     prophase   Choose the answer from above that best fits this description: Centrioles begin to move apart in animal cells.

  • 11. 

                    A.     telophase                 B.     anaphase                 C.     prometaphase                 D.     metaphase                 E.     prophase   Choose the answer from above that best fits this description: This is the longest of the mitotic stages. D

  • 12. 

                    A.     telophase                 B.     anaphase                 C.     prometaphase                 D.     metaphase                 E.     prophase   Choose the answer from above that best fits this description: Centromeres uncouple, sister chromatids are separated, and the two new chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell.

  • 13. 

    If cells in the process of dividing are subjected to colchicine, a drug that interferes with the functioning of the spindle apparatus, at which stage will mitosis be arrested?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 14. 

    A cell containing 92 chromatids at metaphase of mitosis would, at its completion, produce two nuclei containing how many chromosomes?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 15. 

    If the cell whose nuclear material is shown above continues toward completion of mitosis, which of the following events would occur next?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

      Nuclear envelope breakdown

    • D. 

      Formation of telophase nuclei

    • E. 

  • 16. 

    All of the following occur during prophase of mitosis in animal cells except

    • A. 

      The centrioles move toward opposite poles.

    • B. 

      The nucleolus can no longer be seen.

    • C. 

      The nuclear envelope disappears.

    • D. 

      Chromosomes are duplicated.

    • E. 

      The spindle is organized.

  • 17. 

    If there are 20 centromeres in a cell at anaphase, how many chromosomes are there in each daughter cell following cytokinesis?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 18. 

    If there are 20 chromatids in a cell at metaphase, how many chromosomes are there in each daughter cell following cytokinesis?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 19. 

    Where do the microtubules of the spindle originate during mitosis in both plant and animal cells?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 20. 

    All of the following occur during mitosis except the

    • A. 

      Condensing of chromosomes.

    • B. 

      Uncoupling of chromatids at the centromere.

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

      Disappearance of the nucleolus.

  • 21. 

    If a cell has 8 chromosomes at metaphase of mitosis, how many chromosomes will it have during anaphase?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 22. 

    Cytokinesis usually, but not always, follows mitosis. If a cell completed mitosis but not cytokinesis, the result would be a cell with

    • A. 

    • B. 

      High concentrations of actin and myosin.

    • C. 

      Two abnormally small nuclei.

    • D. 

    • E. 

      Two nuclei but with half the amount of DNA.

  • 23. 

    Regarding mitosis and cytokinesis, one difference between higher plants and animals is that in plants

    • A. 

      The spindles contain microfibrils in addition to microtubules, whereas animal spindles do not contain microfibrils.

    • B. 

      Sister chromatids are identical, but they differ from one another in animals.

    • C. 

      A cell plate begins to form at telophase, whereas animals a cleavage furrow is initiated at that stage.

    • D. 

      Chromosomes become attached to the spindle at prophase, whereas in animals chromosomes do not become attached until anaphase.

    • E. 

      Spindle poles contain centrioles, whereas spindle poles in animals do not.

  • 24. 

    How do the daughter cells at the end of mitosis and cytokinesis compare with their parent cell when it was in G1 of the cell cycle?

    • A. 

      The daughter cells have half the amount of cytoplasm and half the amount of DNA.

    • B. 

      The daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.

    • C. 

      The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and half the amount of DNA.

    • D. 

      The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and the same amount of DNA.

    • E. 

      The daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and twice the amount of DNA.

  • 25. 

    The formation of a cell plate is beginning across the middle of a cell and nuclei are re-forming at opposite ends of the cell. What kind of cell is this?

    • A. 

      An animal cell in metaphase

    • B. 

      An animal cell in telophase

    • C. 

      An animal cell undergoing cytokinesis

    • D. 

      A plant cell in metaphase

    • E. 

      A plant cell undergoing cytokinesis

  • 26. 

    Taxol is an anticancer drug extracted from the Pacific yew tree. In animal cells, taxol disrupts microtubule formation by binding to microtubules and accelerating their assembly from the protein precursor, tubulin. Surprisingly, this stops mitosis. Specifically, taxol must affect

    • A. 

      The fibers of the mitotic spindle.

    • B. 

    • C. 

      Formation of the centrioles.

    • D. 

    • E. 

      The S phase of the cell cycle.

  • 27. 

    Which of the following are primarily responsible for cytokinesis in plant cells?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

      Centrioles and basal bodies

    • E. 

  • 28. 

    Which of the following organisms does not reproduce cells by mitosis and cytokinesis?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 29. 

    Chromosomes first become visible during ________ of mitosis.

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 30. 

    The correct sequence of steps in the M phase of the cell cycle is

    • A. 

      Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase.

    • B. 

      Prophase, metaphase, prometaphase, anaphase, telophase.

    • C. 

      Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis.

    • D. 

      Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis.

    • E. 

      Cytokinesis, telophase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase.

  • 31. 

    During which phases of mitosis are chromosomes composed of two chromatids?

    • A. 

      From interphase through anaphase

    • B. 

      From G1 of interphase through metaphase

    • C. 

      From metaphase through telophase

    • D. 

      From anaphase through telophase

    • E. 

      From G2 of interphase through metaphase

  • 32. 

    Which of the following is false regarding the bacterial chromosome?

    • A. 

      It consists of a single, circular DNA molecule.

    • B. 

      DNA replication begins at the origin of replication.

    • C. 

      Its centromeres uncouple during metaphase of mitosis.

    • D. 

      It is highly folded within the cell.

    • E. 

      It has genes that control binary fission.

  • 33. 

    In which group of eukaryotic organisms does the nuclear envelope remain intact during mitosis?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 34. 

    Movement of the chromosomes during anaphase would be most affected by a drug that

    • A. 

      Reduces cyclin concentrations.

    • B. 

      Increases cyclin concentrations.

    • C. 

      Prevents elongation of microtubules.

    • D. 

      Prevents shortening of microtubules.

    • E. 

      Prevents attachment of the microtubules to the kinetochore.

  • 35. 

    Measurements of the amount of DNA per nucleus were taken on a large number of cells from a growing fungus. The measured DNA levels ranged from 3 to 6 picograms per nucleus. In which stage of the cell cycle was the nucleus with 6 picograms of DNA?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 36. 

    A group of cells is assayed for DNA content immediately following mitosis and is found to have an average of 8 picograms of DNA per nucleus. Those cells would have ________ picograms at the end of the S phase and ________ picograms at the end of G2.

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 37. 

    The somatic cells derived from a single-celled zygote divide by which process?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 38. 

    Cytoskeletal elements play important roles in cell division.  The mitotic spindle apparatus is made of ________ and pulls sister chromatids apart, whereas the contractile ring is made of ________ and required for the separation of daughter cells at the end of the mitotic phase of the cell cycle.

    • A. 

      Intermediate filaments; actin microfilaments

    • B. 

      Microtubules; actin microfilaments

    • C. 

      Microtubules; contractile filaments

    • D. 

      Intermediate filaments; contractile filaments

    • E. 

      Actin microfilaments; myosin

  • 39. 

    Imagine looking through a microscope at a squashed onion root tip. The chromosomes of many of the cells are plainly visible. In some cells, replicated chromosomes are aligned along the center (equator) of the cell. These particular cells are in which stage of mitosis?

    • A. 

    • B. 

    • C. 

    • D. 

    • E. 

  • 40. 

    If mammalian cells receive a go-ahead signal at the G1 checkpoint, they will

    • A. 

      Move directly into telophase.

    • B. 

      Complete the cycle and divide.

    • C. 

      Exit the cycle and switch to a nondividing state.

    • D. 

      Show a drop in MPF concentration.

    • E. 

      Complete cytokinesis and form new cell walls.

  • As a eukaryotic organism grows, its cells are constantly dividing and creating new cells according to the “genetic blueprint” of its DNA. The processes by which these new cells are developed are known as mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is the method by which somatic (or non-reproductive) are created, while meiosisis the method that creates gametes (reproductive cells like sperm and eggs).

    Keep in mind: prokaryotic cells do not have membrane-bound organelles like nuclei, and therefore do not undergo mitosis and meiosis as eukaryotic cells do (instead, they undergo binary fission). Throughout our discussion of mitosis and meiosis, we will be talking only about eukaryotes.

    Before we get into the specifics of each process, let’s go over some AP Biology background information that will help us understand the differences between them.

    Chromatin, Chromatids and Chromosomes

    These are essentially the three forms of a cell’s genetic material. Chromatin is its loosest, least-organized form, which usually floats freely around inside the defined envelope of the nucleus. Chromatids are formed from condensed chromatin and serve as one-half of each chromosome. In its most complete form, two identical “sister chromatids” are joined together by a centromere to form a full chromosome.

    Diploid vs. Haploid Cells

    Cells come in essentially two “flavors”: diploid and haploid. As the names imply, a diploid cell contains two sets of genetic information in homologous chromosome pairs, while a haploid cell contains only one set of genetic information in single copies of each chromosome.

    Non-reproductive somatic cells are diploid cells, containing two sets of chromosomes. Human cells, for example, have 23 chromosome pairs (46 total chromosomes), with one set of genetic information inherited from each of that human’s parents.

    Reproductive gametes, on the other hand, are haploid cells, containing only one set of chromosomes. In humans, egg and sperm cells contain only 23 chromosomes. When gametes combine during sexual reproduction, the sets of chromosomes from both parents provide the chromosome pairs for future diploid cells.

    Now that we’ve reviewed the necessary AP Bio background, let’s get to the meat of this section: the actual processes of mitosis and meiosis.

    Mitosis

    The process of cellular mitosis occurs in four primary phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. A fifth “phase,” known as interphase, is the state in which a somatic cell spends most of its lifespan.

    Note: you will not need to know the names of these phases for the AP Biology exam, but you will still be required to describe the steps.

    Take a look at how each of these phases breaks down.

    Interphase

    Not necessarily a true “phase” of mitosis, interphase is the normal, non-division state of somatic cells. If you throw a prepared slide of cells under a microscope, chances are the majority of them will be sitting in interphase, looking relatively inactive and uninteresting. If a cell is not in interphase, it is undergoing mitosis (which is sometimes referred to as “M phase”).

    Interphase itself is split into three stages, as follows:

     G1: cell simply grows

     S phase: cell continues growing, starts duplicating DNA

     G2: growth continues while cell prepares for mitotic division

    Prophase

    This is where the action begins. As a cell prepares to divide, it enters prophase, in which the nucleoli—spherical structures inside the nucleus that contain RNA and protein—disappear and the chromatin of the nucleus condenses into tightly-packaged chromosomes. Note that because the DNA was duplicated in S-Interphase, each chromosome now contains two copies of the cell’s DNA.

    The membrane that surrounds the genetic material of the cell (known as the nuclear envelope) then disappears, and a mitotic spindle is created as the microtubule organization centers (MTOCs) move toward opposite ends of the nucleus. These MTOCs are specialized structures that control the arrangement of a protein called tubulin into long microtubules that can manipulate the positioning of the cell’s genetic material. The mitotic spindle is simply the term for the overall structure of microtubules that guide this material.

    As the MTOCs move apart, the microtubules they’ve built increase in length and connect to the centromeres of the chromosomes via a region called the kinetochore. The MTOCs are then capable of moving the chromosomes toward or away from the poles of the cell by shortening or lengthening the microtubules.

    Metaphase

    During metaphase, the fully-formed chromosomes are aligned by the microtubules at the center of the cell in a plane known as the metaphase plate. Then, the attached microtubules retract, splitting each chromosome into its individual sister chromatids. These resulting chromatids still have a centromere each, however, and therefore are referred to as individual chromosomes from this point forward.

    Metaphase ends as soon as the original chromosomes are split.

    Top tip: to determine the number of chromosomes at any time during the process, simply count the number of centromeres.

    Anaphase

    After the initial separation of the chromosomes, the new chromosomes (the split chromatids) are pulled to the poles of the cell via the shortening of the microtubules. At the end of this phase, each pole contains a complete set of identical chromosomes.

    Since the DNA copies made during the S phase of interphase have now split, the chromosomes at the poles consist of single chromatids with only a single copy of the parent cell’s DNA.

    Telophase

    To wrap-up the division process, normal cell organelles start to re-build and the newly-formed daughter cells begin to take shape for their own interphase. Nuclear envelopes develop around the genetic material at each pole, the chromosomes unwind and return to loosely-floating chromatin, and the nucleoli appear once more.

    While the nucleus reforms, the dividing cell undergoes cytokinesis, which refers to the splitting of the unit and the division of cytoplasm across the two new cells. A cleavage furrow develops at the center of the dividing unit and cinches closed like a drawstring, leaving two separate cells with enclosed cell membranes.

    Final result: two diploid daughter cells containing identical genetic material to the parent cell.

    Meiosis

    Because meiosis has the special task of creating new sex cells for reproduction, its process is unique, though similar to mitosis in many ways. Meiosis essentially goes through the stages of mitosis twice, with some key variations.

    Perhaps the most important thing about meiosis is that it enables the independent assortment of genetic material. The determination of which chromosomes end up in which gametes is random, allowing for natural variation in the gene pool. It is this variation and biological diversity that keeps species naturally resilient.

    Now that you’re inspired by the beauty of natural genetic diversity, let’s discuss how it happens.

    Prophase I

    This phase begins similarly to prophase in mitosis, with the nuclear envelope breaking down and the chromatin condensing into chromosomes. In meiosis, however, homologous chromosomes pair up into groups of four chromatids (known as tetrads or bivalents) in a process called synapsis.

    During synapsis, genetic material may cross over between non-sister homologous chromatids (chromatids that are not connected by a centromere and are therefore not part of the same chromosome).

    Metaphase I

    Next, homologous chromosome pairs are arranged at the metaphase plate. Instead of a line of single chromosomes, as in mitosis, meiosis sees a line of pairs. Microtubules from each pole then attach to the kinetochore of one chromosome from each pair.

    Anaphase I

    This next phase starts as soon as the tetrads begin to separate. Like in mitosis, the separate chromosomes are pulled by the microtubules to opposite ends of the cell. Unlike mitosis, however, these chromosomes still comprise two sister chromatids.

    Telophase I

    The first half of the process completes with the formation of nuclear membranes around the chromosomes at the poles. Unlike in mitosis, the cleavage furrow does not yet develop. Note that once this process repeats to form the final four daughter cells, the resulting cells will be haploid.

    Prophase II

    The fun starts again with prophase II, in which the two newly-formed nuclear envelopes break down again and the mitotic spindle forms. This time, there is no crossing over.

    Metaphase II

    Metaphase II is nearly identical to metaphase in mitosis, with single chromosomes aligning at the metaphase plate. In this case, however, there is half the number of chromosomes present as in mitosis.

    Anaphase II

    Just like metaphase II, anaphase II mirrors the happenings of anaphase in mitosis, but with half as many chromosomes. Each single chromosome is pulled apart by microtubules and the new chromosomes (formerly sister chromatids) are pulled to opposite poles.

    Telophase II

    The entire process wraps up in telophase II. Four new nuclei form and cytokinesis occurs to form the four final cells. Note that the resulting cells’ chromosomes comprise only one chromatid each, and even when these are replicated during the S phase of interphase the haploid cell will still only contain half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell.

    Final result: four haploid daughter cells, each containing copies of half the genetic material of the parent cell.

    Review

     Mitosis creates two diploid somatic daughter cells that are clones of the parent cell.

    •  A somatic cell spends most of its time in interphase, growing and replicating DNA in preparation for mitosis.

    •  The four phases of actual mitotic division are prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. These names will not need to be memorized for the AP Biology exam.

    •  Meiosis creates four haploid gamete daughter cells, each containing half of the original cell’s genetic material.

    •  The phases of meiosis vary in a few key ways from those of mitosis, but follow the same general phase order twice. Again, the names of the phases will not need to be memorized.

    That’s all there is to it! Can you describe each of the stages and key structures of mitosis and meiosis for the AP Bio exam?

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