Bronfenbrenner Ecological Theory Of Development Essays On Abortion
Urie Bronfenbrenner (April 29, 1917–September 25, 2005) was a very famous and influential, Russian American psychologist known for developing his path breaking, "Ecological Systems Theory." His theories impacted the education of disadvantaged and marginalized sections of society.
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory holds that 'development' is influenced by several environmental systems. The theory identifies five environmental systems. The five environmental systems are:
- "Microsystem: This refers to the immediate surroundings of the individual. These contexts include the person's family, peers, school, and neighborhood. It is in the microsystem that the most direct interactions with social agents take place; with parents, peers, and teachers, for example. The individual is not merely a passive recipient of experiences in these settings, but someone who actually helps to construct the social settings.
- Mesosystem: This refers to the relations between the different microsystems or connections between contexts. Some common examples are the connection between family experiences and school experiences, school experiences to church experiences, and family experiences to peer experiences. For example, children whose parents have rejected them may have difficulty developing positive relations with their friends or peers.
- Exosystem: Is concerned with the connection between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual's immediate context. For example, a wife's or child's experience at home may be influenced by the husband's experiences at work. The father might receive a promotion that requires more travel, which might increase conflict with the wife and affect patterns of interaction with the child.
- Macrosystem: Describes the culture in which individuals live. Culture meaning the ways of people. Cultural contexts would include socioeconomic status, poverty, and ethnicity.
- Chronosystem: Refers to the patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life of an individual as well as sociohistorical circumstances. For example, divorce is one transition. Researchers have found that the negative effects of divorce on children often peak in the first year after the divorce. Two years after the divorce, family interaction is less chaotic and more stable. An example of sociohistorical circumstances, would be the increasing opportunities for women to pursue a career.
The ecological theory is one among the many different theories related to human development. It emphasizes environmental factors as playing the major role to development. However this theory varies from culture to culture.
Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Systems Theory On Child Development
#1 Urie Bronfenbrenner, an American psychologist, developed the Ecological Systems Theory in order to further discuss and explain child development. Bronfenbrenner's theory explains that there are certain cultural and social factors within a child's immediate environment that influences the child's development and experience. Within the immediate environment of the child, there are many levels, or systems, that can affect and influence child development.
There are five systems that Bronfenbrenner indicates in his theory on child development. The first system in the Ecological Theory is microsystem, which is the child's closest layer. The microsystem is the immediate environment in which the child lives in. Any immediate interaction with the child is part of the microsystem, such as at school, day care and with family and peers. Such relationship can certainly influence a child's development psychologically, biologically, or etc. As a child develops, the child is very susceptible to his or her immediate surroundings and interaction within the microsystem. The ways in which a child is treated within the microsystem and also the ways in which the child reacts are also important factors in the microsystem.
The second system is the mesosystem, which is a system that is comprised by the linkages between the microsystems. Such an example includes the possible connection between a child's immediate surroundings of school and home. More specifically, the connection with a child's school and home is a parent teacher meeting or conference, in which the child is involved in.
The third system of Bronfenbrenner's theory on child development is the exosystem, which includes other places or people that indirectly influences a child's development. One of the most common examples of an exoskeleton is the workplace of the child's parents. Although the child will most likely not interact within the parent's workplace, there are many factors that can affect child development. A bad day at work, such as being fired, can negatively affect the parent's attitude towards the child. With the stress of paying bills and being in debt, the parents will most likely take out their stress or anger towards their child, which will negatively influence development. Similarly, a parent who receives a raise at work...
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