1 Kazidal

English Essay War On Terrorism Timeline

The War on Terror is the campaign launched by the United States of America in response to the September 11 attacks against organizations designated with terrorism.[1][2] The campaign, whose stated objective was eliminating international terrorism, began in 2001.[3] The following is a timeline of events linked to the War on Terror.

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

2001[edit]

DatesEvents
September 11The September 11, 2001 attacks in New York City, Washington D.C., and Shanksville, Pennsylvania, United States, killed 2,993 people.[4][5]
September 12The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1368: condemning the September 11 attacks, calling on all countries to co-operate in bringing the perpetrators, organisers and sponsors of the attacks to justice and that those responsible for supporting or harbouring the perpetrators, organisers and sponsors would be held accountable.
September 14Operation Noble Eagle begins, the United States and Canadian military launch operations related to homeland security in response to the September 11 attacks.[6]
September 14The Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists was passed as S.J.Res. 23 by the United States Congress, authorizing the use of United States Armed Forces against those responsible for the attacks on September 11, 2001, and any "associated forces". The authorization granted the President the authority to use all "necessary and appropriate force" against those whom he determined "planned, authorized, committed or aided" the September 11th attacks, or who harbored said persons or groups.
September 18 and October 92001 anthrax attacks kill 5 and infect 17 others by anthrax spores in New York City, New York, Boca Raton, Florida, and Washington D.C. in the United States.[7]
September 20The phrase "War on Terror" was first officially used.[8]
October 1Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM) terrorists carried out the Jammu and Kashmir legislative assembly car bombing in the city of Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir, India, killing 38 and injuring 60.
October 7The War in Afghanistan begins.[9] with the Invasion of Afghanistan, under the codename Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (OEF-A).
October 9Operation Eagle Assist begins, 13 NATO nations execute operational sorties over the skies of the United States in NATO AWACS aircraft.
October 16Operation Active Endeavour officially begins.[10][11][12]
October 26Congress pass the Patriot Act: which allows the search and electronic surveillance powers of federal agencies while investigating persons suspected of terrorism.
November 9–10The Fall of Mazar-i-Sharif takes place: U.S. and Northern Alliance forces capture the city of Mazar-i-Sharif, in Balkh Province in Afghanistan, from Taliban, al-Qaeda, Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IMU), Tehreek-e-Nafaz-e-Shariat-e-Mohammadi (TNSM), and other foreign fighters, the Northern Alliance suffered 38 killed whilst the terrorists suffered over 300 killed, 500 captured and 1,000 defected.
November 11–23The Siege of Kunduz takes place: U.S. and Northern Alliance forces besieged the city of Kunduz in Afghanistan, that Taliban, al-Qaeda and IMU fighters occupied, coalition forces eventually took the city, killing or wounding 2,000 enemy combatants and capturing 3,500 more, however 5,000 terrorists were airlifted by the Pakistan Air Force to North Pakistan.
Mid to Late NovemberOperation Trent takes place: Members of the 22nd SAS Regiment, supported by US forces, assaulted an al-Qaeda opium facility in the Registan Desert, Helmand/Kandahar Province, Afghanistan. They successfully cleared the facility, killing 18–73 al-Qaeda terrorists and Taliban fighters and capturing dozens more, whilst the SAS suffered 4 wounded.
November 25–December 1The Battle of Qala-i-Jangi takes place: Taliban, al-Qaeda and IMU prisoners begin an uprising at Qala-i-Jangi fortress in Afghanistan against its Northern Alliance guards and CIA interrogators, US, British and Northern Alliance forces eventually quell the uprising, out of a total of 300-500 enemy combatants, 86 were recapturied the rest were killed in the battle. 1 American was killed.
December 6–17The Battle of Tora Bora takes place: Coalition forces almost captured/killed Osama Bin Laden in Pachir Aw Agam District, Nangarhar Province, Afghanistan, but he evaded them and later escaped into Pakistan, however, 200 al-Qaeda and Taliban fighters were killed.
December 10In Iraqi Kurdistan, the two splinter groups that broke off from Islamic Movement of Kurdistan (IMK) that formed Jund al-Islam became Ansar al-Islam (AAI).[13]
December 18Operation Enduring Freedom – Kyrgyzstan begins.[14]

2002[edit]

DatesEvents
UnknownA team of British SAS and Delta Force was sent into Indian-administered Kashmir to hunt for Osama bin Laden after receiving reports that he was being sheltered by the Kashmiri militant group HuM.[15]
JanuaryGuantanamo Bay detention camp was opened.
January 15Operation Enduring Freedom – Philippines begins as part of Operation Enduring Freedom in the Southern Philippines.[16]
January 16The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1390: imposing further sanctions on Osama bin Laden, Al-Qaeda, the Taliban and others associated with them.
January 288 al-Qaeda terrorists barricaded themselves inside Mirwais Hospital in Kandahar, Afghanistan, following a firefight with the terrorists Afghan soldiers, advised by a US Army Special Forces ODA, with the alleged involvement of JTF2, killing 6 and capturing 2.[17][18]
February 27The Georgia Train and Equip Program begins.[19][20][21]
March 1–18Operation Anaconda (including the Battle of Takur Ghar) takes place: Coalition forces succeed in removing al-Qaeda, IMU and Taliban presence from the Shah-i-Kot Valley in Afghanistan, killing 500–800 enemy combatants, 15 coalition troops are killed and another 82 wounded.
April 11Al-Qaeda carries out the Ghriba synagogue bombing in Tunisia, killing 19 and injuring over 30 people, signalling the beginning of the Insurgency in the Maghreb.
April 15–May 16Operation Mountain Lion takes place in coordination with Operation Ptarmigan (a subsidiary operation of Operation Jacana), US forces, Australian SAS and other Coalition special forces and conventional forces aimed to find and deny control of the Gardez and Khost regions in Afghanistan to al-Qaeda terrorists and Taliban fighters. The operation resulted in small but fierce firefights with fighters who had infiltrated across the Pakistan border, Maj.GenFranklin L. Hagenbeck said that al-Qaeda still possessed much of its leadership and command-and-control structure.[22][23]
April 16–July 9Operation Jacana takes place: In the aftermath of Operation Anaconda, British, US, Australian and Norwegian forces conduct a series of operations aimed at finding and eliminating remaining al-Qaeda and Taliban in Khost province and Paktia Province in Afghanistan. 11 enemy combatants were killed and 9 more captured, a large number of weapons cashes were also captured and/or destroyed; the results of the operations also showed that al-Qaeda and the Taliban had abandoned a large scale presence in the region.[22]
May 14Members of the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT) carried out an attack on a tourist bus in India, killing 31 and injuring 47.
May 16Operation Eagle Assist ends.
October 7Operation Enduring Freedom – Horn of Africa begins.[24]
October 8The Faylaka Island attack in Kuwait killed 1 U.S. Marine and injured another.
October 12Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) and other al-Qaeda terrorists carried the Bali bombings in Indonesia which killed 202 and injured 209 people.
October 16The Iraq Resolution is enacted after being passed by the United States Congress, authorizing military action against Iraq.
November 8The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1441: offering Saddam Hussein's regime "a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" that had been set out in several previous resolutions.
November 26The Central Intelligence Agency begins a series of ongoing Predator drone strikes on Al-Qaeda in Yemen and al-Qaeda in Saudi Arabia.[25]
November 28Al-Qaeda carried out the Mombasa attacks in Kenya, killing 13 and injuring 80 people.

2003[edit]

DatesEvents
January 3–April 12Anti-war groups across the world organized public protests against war with Iraq. About 36 million people across the globe took part in almost 3,000 protests.[26]
January 27US Special forces and Afghan forces were searching a compound in the mountains near Spin Boldak, Kandahar province, Afghanistan when they were engaged by 3 fighters loyal to the Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin (HIG) (that was designated a terrorist group on February 19), killing one, wounding and capturing another. After they interrogated the prisoner they divulged the location of 80 other HIG fighters in the mountains, they called in air support from B-1 bombers, F-16s, AC-130s and Apache helicopters, before Coalition troops moved in. At least 18 HIG fighters were killed, it was the largest engagement since Operation Anaconda.[22][27]
February 5Colin Powell addressed a plenary session of the United Nations Security Council, stating categorically that Saddam Hussein was working to obtain key components to produce nuclear weapons.
February 19The HIG was designated a terrorist group-for several months its leader, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, had been trying to consolidate the remnants of al-Qaeda and the Taliban into one anti-Coalition force.[22][27]
March 20The Iraq War begins with the Invasion of Iraq. President George W. Bush refers to it as "the central front in the War on Terror".[28][29]
March 28–30Operation Viking Hammer takes place: US Forces and Iraqi Kurdish forces eliminated AAI terrorists and its allies who had occupied parts of Iraqi Kurdistan, killing around 150-200 Ansar al Islam terrorists and 100 more terrorist-allied fighters were killed, Iraqi Kurdish forces suffered 30 killed, 23 wounded.
April 19The US Joint Special Operations Command's Task Force 20 captured Mohammed Abbas, the leader of the Palestine Liberation Front (PLF/PLO), in Baghdad, Iraq. US authorities cited Abbas's presence in Baghdad as evidence that Iraq had been harbouring international terrorists[23][30]
May 16Salafia Jihadia-a Salafi jihadist militant group with links to al-Qaeda and associated with the GICM-carried out the Casablanca bombings in Morocco, killing 45 and injuring over 100 people.
Spring–September 20 or NovemberSmall groups of foreign jihadists that infiltrated Iraq following the invasion, as well as nationalist Sunni Iraqis, merged with the remnants of AAI who had fled to Iran and/or infiltrated Iraq to form Ansar al-Sunnah (AAS).[31][13]
August 5JI and al-Qaeda terrorists carried out the Marriott Hotel bombing in Indonesia which killed 12 and injured 150 people.
October 2Pakistani forces (allegedly in a joint mission with US forces) attacked an al-Qaeda hideout in South Waziristan killing Hasan Mahsum, the leader of the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM) and 7 others.
October 23The leader of the Algerian terrorist faction Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC), Hassan Hattab, was replaced by Nabil Sahraoui, who declared the groups allegiance to al-Qaeda.[32]
October 31Members of the 22nd SAS Regiment and Delta Force, supported by other US troops, conducted Operation Abalone: Its target was a Sudanese jihadist-who was believed to be facilitating the arrival of Islamist terrorists into Iraq-in compounds/dwellings on the outskirts of Ramadi, Iraq. The operation was a success; the Sudanese jihadist is believed to have been killed along with a dozen other terrorists, 4 foreign jihadists were also captured-finding some of the first actual proof of an internationalist jihadist movement that emerged in post-invasion Iraq. 1 UKSF soldier was killed and several others wounded.[33][34]
November 15 and 20The Istanbul bombings in Turkey by al-Qaeda killed 57 and injured around 700 people.
December 13Operation Red Dawn takes place: Saddam Hussein is found and captured by U.S. forces in Ad-Dawr, Iraq.[35]

2004[edit]

DatesEvents
February 27Abu Sayyaf (ASG) carryout the SuperFerry 14 bombing in the Philippines, killing 116 people.
March 11The Madrid train bombings in Spain kill 191 and injure over 2,000 people, the attack was carried out by an al-Qaeda cell.
March 16War in North-West Pakistan begins with the Battle of Wana between Pakistani forces and al-Qaeda.
March 23The Battle of Wana ends, Pakistani forces lost 49 soldiers killed, 11 soldiers captured, 33 soldiers wounded, whilst al-Qaeda suffered 55 killed and 150 more captured.
April 4–May 1The First Battle of Fallujah takes place: Following the Fallujah ambush on March 31, the US military launched an operation to regain control of Fallujah from Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad (JTJ) terrorists and other insurgents. On April 9 US troops were ordered to halt their offensive, after having cleared at least 25% of the city and declare a ceasefire after political pressure from the Iraqi Governing Council and the negative media coverage by Al Jazeera and Al Arabiya of the battle effecting public opinion. By the end of April, US forces gave control of the city to the Fallujah Brigade-a Sunni security force formed by the CIA; 27 US troops were killed in the operation, whilst 184–228 terrorists and insurgents were killed.[36][37][38][39][40] By September, the Brigade dissolved and turned over all its weapons and soldiers to terrorist and insurgent groups in the city.[41][37]
April 24The Georgia Train and Equip Program ends
May 29Members of al-Qaeda and its affiliates carryout the Khobar massacre in Saudi Arabia, which kills 22 and injures 25 people.
June 18The United States government, led by the CIA's Special Activities Division, begins a series of ongoing attacks on targets in northwest Pakistan using drones (unmanned aerial vehicles). These attacks sought to defeat the Taliban and Al-Qaeda militants who were thought to have found a safe haven in Pakistan.[42]
June 20The leader of the GSPC, Nabil Sahraoui, was killed along with 3 of his lieutenants/aides in a shootout with the Algerian army during an "vast anti-terror operation" involving 3,000 soldiers in a sweep of wooded mountains in Bejaia Province in Algeria.[43][44]
September 1–3The Beslan school siege takes place: 34 terrorists belonging to Riyad-us Saliheen took over a school in Beslan, North Ossetia-Alania, Russia, taking 1,100 people as hostages. Russian security forces eventually stormed the building with the use of tanks, armored vehicles, heavy weapons and attack helicopters; the rescue operation killed 334 hostages and 10 civilians and injured approximately 783; 31 terrorists were killed and over 10 of the security force was killed.
September 9The bombing of the Australian Embassy in Jakarta, Indonesia, by JI killed 8 and wounded 150 people.
October 1–3The Battle of Samarra takes place: In the run up to the January 2005 Iraqi election, the Iraqi Interim Government and the Coalition began a campaign to clear Samarra and Fallujah of JTJ and other insurgent's control, thereby ending the violence towards security forces and civilians and securing the election. US and Iraqi forces liberated Samarra after 3 days of fighting, resulting in 127 terrorists and other insurgents killed with a further 60 wounded and 128 captured, Coalition forces lost 1 killed and 8 wounded.[40]
October 17The JTJ became known as Tanzim Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn-commonly known as al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI), when its leader, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, allegiance to Osama bin Laden's al-Qaeda network.
November 7–December 23The Second Battle of Fallujah takes place: US, UK and Iraqi forces launch an offensive to liberate Fallujah from AQI and AAS terrorists, as well as other insurgents and terrorists, killing 1,200–1,500 enemy combatants, whilst 1,500 more were captured, coalition forces suffered 107 killed and 613 wounded.[45]
November 8–16The Battle of Mosul takes place after AQI terrorists and other insurgents began carrying out coordinated attacks and ambushes in an attempt to take over the city, US, Iraqi security forces and Kurdish forces counterattacked, retaking terrorist and insurgent held areas, which ended major fighting on November 16, however the western area and parts of the eastern city remained in insurgent hands. The US lost 4 killed, whilst Iraqi forces suffered 116 killed and 5,000 deserted, 1 British and 1 Turkish security contractors were killed; 71 terrorists and insurgents were confirmed killed.[46][47]

2005[edit]

DatesEvents
January 1The Georgia Sustainment and Stability Operations Program begins.
May 8–19Operation Matador takes place: In an effort to stem the flow of terrorists and insurgents entering Iraq from Syria, US Marines fought and secured the Ubaydi and the town of Ramana, suffering 9 killed and 40 wounded, whilst the AQI terrorists and other insurgents lost an estimated 144 killed and 90 captured. US forces did not garrison the towns and insurgents resumed control over the city.[47][48][49][50]
July 7The London bombings kill 52 people and injure 700 more.[51][52][53]
July 23Operation Marlborough takes place: members of the British Special Boat Service, with support from elements of the 22nd SAS Regiment and U.S. military assaulted an AQI safehouse in southern Baghdad and killed 3 terrorists who were about to carryout major suicide bombings.
July–December 22Operation Sayeed takes place: known as an "umbrella" operation-where a number of subsidiary operations took place under it. The operations took place in Al Anbar Governorate in Iraq and were aimed at significantly removing AQI's presence from the Western Euphrates River Valley; to ensure there was a secure "climate" and "environment" to conduct a referendum in October and national elections in December 2005; and to secure control of the Iraqi border to the Iraqi people. The operation was a success-causing significant disruption to AQI's organisation that had a lasting effect across Al-Anbar Governorate; in addition to destroying much of the AQI leadership and command-and-control functions, the operation also ensured the safety and maximum participation of Iraqi citizens in the constitutional referendum and national elections. The US lost 54 killed and 324 wounded, Iraqi security forces lost 16 killed and 89 wounded; the terrorists and insurgents lost between 727 and almost 1,000 killed; between 2,308 and almost 4,000 captured; and 64 wounded.
September 1–18The Battle of Tal Afar takes place: US and Iraqi forces carried out a military operation to eliminate AQI terrorists and other insurgents from Tal Afar in Iraq, which the terrorists were using as a staging ground for moving foreign fighters into Iraq since early 2005. Coalition forces succeeded in their objectives at the cost of US forces losing 6 killed, 52 Wounded and Iraqi forces losing 15 killed and 36 wounded. Terrorists and insurgent groups lost 163 killed and between 295–700 captured.
October 1JI carried out the Bali Bombings in Indonesia, which killed 20 and injured more than 100 people.
November 9The Amman bombings in Jordan kill 60 and injured 115 people, AQI carried out the attack.
November 26The Christian Peacemaker hostage crisis in Iraq begins when 4 members of the Christian Peacemaker Teams were abducted in Baghdad by members of the terrorist group Swords of Righteousness Brigade-a small offshoot of possibly IAI, AAI, Army of Islam, or a cover name for their abduction cells, or freelance cash criminal abductors.[54][31][55]

2006[edit]

DatesEvents
January 15AQI was one of five or six other Sunni insurgent groups that formed the Mujahideen Shura Council (MSC) that embraced the same Salafist ideology as AQI.[56]
MarchDEVGRU operators and US Army Rangers carried out an operation allegedly under the codename: Operation Vigilant Harvest. Their target was an al-Qaeda training camp in North Waziristan in Pakistan, they were flown across the Afghan-Pakistan border. The force killed as many as 30 terrorists, including the Chechen camp commandant Imam Asad. The operation has been falsely credited to the Pakistani Special Service Group.[57]
March 23The Christian Peacemaker hostage crisis in Iraq is brought to a successful conclusion when members of the 22nd SAS Regiment raided a house in western Baghdad and rescued the 3 remaining hostages, the raid was part of Operation Lightwater: The operation initiated by Task Force Knight (the British special forces task force in Iraq) supported by JTF2 and Canadian and US intelligence units.
April 16Operation Larchwood 4 takes place: Members of the 22nd SAS Regiment, supported by US forces, carried out a raid on an AQI-occupied farmhouse Yusufiyah in Iraq, the target for the operation was to capture a mid-level terrorist leader. The SAS suffered 5 wounded but killed 5 terrorists and captured their target and another senior AQI terrorist, whom revealed around May 20 information that eventually led to discovery of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the leader of AQI.
April 28–December 25AQI (from mid-October it was reformed as ISI) succeeded in carrying out a coordinated offensive to take control of Diyala Governorate in Iraq, where Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, the leader of AQI and the Mujahideen Shura Council (MSC) designated the Governorate as his Islamic caliphate with Baquba as its capital (where he based his headquarters). Baquba fell on December 25, leading to the start of the Diyala campaign.
June 4Islamist insurgents begin taking over large parts of Somalia.
June 72 U.S. F-16C Jets carryout an airstrike on a farmhouse/safehouse in Hibhib a village outside Baquba in Iraq, killing AQI's leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi.[58]
June 17–November 15The Second Battle of Ramadi takes place: U.S. and Iraqi forces mostly drive AQI (from mid-October it was reformed as ISI) and other Sunni insurgents out of their de facto capital: Ramadi, 750 militants were killed, the US lost 80+ killed and 200+ wounded whilst the Iraq lost 30 troops and policemen killed.
July 9–October 24Operation Together Forward takes place: US and Iraqi forces, supported by British forces carryout the operation to counter AQI's (later reformed as ISI) determination to make its attacks on Baghdad a central role in its plans to undermine the new Iraqi government, as well as reduce the sectarian violence in the city in order to strengthen the Iraqi government and security forces. The operation failed, terrorists and other insurgents infiltrated back into cleared areas, the violence escalated and Iraqi security forces appeared insufficient. US forces suffered 101 killed and 1 captured, Iraqi security forces lost 197 killed; whilst over 400 terrorists and other insurgents were killed or captured.
July 20The War in Somalia (2006–09) begins when U.S. backed Ethiopian troops invaded Somalia to support the Somali Transitional Government against Islamist insurgents
August 17The Second Battle of Habbaniyah begins: Taking place in the urban sprawl between Fallujah and Ramadi, one of the most vicious and protracted battles of the Iraq war took place.
Mid-OctoberAl-Qaeda announced the creation of Islamic state of Iraq (ISI) with Ramadi as its capital.[59] replacing the MSC and its AQI.
November 5Saddam Hussein is sentenced to death by hanging, he is hanged on December 30 at Camp Justice in Baghdad, Iraq.
DecemberAround this time, Al-Shabaab-previously serving as the Islamic Courts Union's military wing-emerged as an independent organization after breaking away from the ICU, which had by then splintered into several smaller factions after its defeat by Somali TFG and Ethiopian forces.[60][61]

2007[edit]

DatesEvents
January 5–12The Battle of Ras Kamboni takes place: Ethiopian and the Somali TFG forces supported by US AC-130 gunship fought for control of Ras Kamboni, Somalia, from ICU, OLF, al-Qaeda operatives and other affiliated militants and to eliminate them. 16 enemy combatants were killed and 44 civilians were killed[62]
January 6–9 and January 24The Battle of Haifa Street takes place: Iraqi troops killed 30 Sunni insurgents at a fake checkpoint, in retaliation 27 Shias were killed and the rest threatened, on January 8, US and Iraqi troops launched an offensive to clear out the area of ISI terrorists and insurgents, killing or capturing 70 terrorists and other insurgents, 25 others were detained. The area was temporarily cleared but insurgents reinfiltated the area, on January 24, US and Iraqi forces conducted Operation Tomahawk Strike II to clear the area, approximately 65 insurgents and terrorists were killed and captured. 20 Iraqi soldiers were killed during both engagements.[63][64][65]
January 11Delta Force operators and other US forces raided the Iranian Liaison Office in Irbil, Iraq, intelligence from the raid produced evidence that Iran had connections with AAS in an effort to undermine the coalition efforts in Iraq.[66]
January 28The GSPC changed its name to al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM).
February 6Operation Enduring Freedom – Trans Sahara begins.[67]
February 11The Algiers bombings in Algeria by al-Qaeda kill 33 and injure over 130 people.
February 14The Second Battle of Habbaniyah ends in a Coalition victory after causing the flow of supplies and terrorists into the major cities of Iraq to dry up permanently; some 14 US Marines and 37 insurgents were killed.
February 14–November 24Coalition forces carryout Operation Imposing Law to secure Baghdad from ISI terrorists and other insurgent's control ((which was estimated as high as 70%) and reducing the sectarian violence. The operation later became part of Operation Phantom Thunder in June when US and Iraqi forces cleared the northern and southern flanks of the city; by November the operation was declared a success. The violence was reduced and most of the city cam under coalition control. 872 Coalition members were killed and over 1,200 terrorists and insurgents were killed.[47][68][69]
March 10–August 19The Battle of Baqubah in Iraq took place: US and Iraqi forces began clearing Buhriz and eastern half of Baqubah of insurgents and ISI terrorists from their de facto capital. On 18 June, as part of Operation Phantom Thunder, US forces commenced Operation Arrowhead Ripper an offensive operations from the west, the operation ended on August 19 with the city largely being secured, although the insurgent presence remained in the city and surrounding areas, it was not in large numbers. US forces lost 31 killed and 55 wounded, Iraqi forces lost 13 killed and 15 wounded; over 227 terrorists and other insurgents were killed and 100 more were detained.
MarchThe al-Qaeda Kurdish Battalions (AQKB) formed.[70]
May 20–September 7The Lebanon conflict takes place: The Lebanese security forces began fighting Jund al-Sham and Fatah al-Islam, the conflict ended in a Lebanese victory, with Lebanese forces suffering 170-179 killed and 406-500 wounded, 238 terrorists were killed and a further 233 wounded, 65 civilians were also killed, whilst UN forces in Lebanon lost 6 soldiers killed and 2 wounded.
May 31–June 1It was reported that following clashes between the local militia or police and 35 Islamist militants who arrived in the area by boat-which forced the militants into nearby hills or to escape by sea, the USS Chafee bombarded an ICU camp in the mountains near Bargal in Somalia. Al-Qaeda terrorists and the remnants of the ICU and other Islamists militants were gathered at the camp, "actionable intelligence" gathered by U.S. Special Operations Forces and local tribal leaders suggested that Fazul Abdullah Mohammed, head of intelligence for the ICU and a leader of al Qaeda's East Africa network, and other High Valued Targets were in the area. Some of the Islamists escaped by boat or inland,[71][72][73][74] 5 militia and/or police were wounded whilst a dozen Islamists were killed.
June 16–August 14Operation Phantom Thunder took place: Multi-National Force-Iraq carryout out major offensive operations across Iraq against ISI terrorists and other insurgents and jihadists, resulting in a strategic coalition victory by occupying and ejecting the insurgents from their strongholds in Northern Babil, eastern Anbar, Diyala Governorate and the southern outskirts of Baghdad. Coalition forces also conducted intelligence raids against ISI and Iranian-backed cells nationwide, with emphasis on cells in Baghdad, Diyala, and central and northern Iraq. The US suffered 140 troops killed, 220 Iraqi security forces and 20 killed allied Iraqi militia killed; terrorists and other insurgents lost 1,196 killed and 6,702 captured.
August 15Operation Phantom Strike begins: Following up the success of Operation Phantom Thunder, Coalition forces in Iraq carried out operations aimed at disrupting the ISI and other terrorist and insurgent networks across the country, targeting terrorists and extremists fleeing Baghdad and other key cities with particular focus on remaining ISI terrorists and Iranian-supported insurgent groups.
October 1The Diyala campaign in Iraq ends in a Coalition victory due to the combination of the Coalition victories in the Battle of Baqubah, Operations Phantom Thunder and Operation Phantom Strike-where in August and September, Operation Lightning Hammer I & II took place respectively, as part of Operation Phantom Strike which defeated ISI (particularly the elements that fled from Baqubah) and other terrorist cells seeking safe haven throughout the Diyala River Valley. 106 US servicemen were killed, 300 Iraqi security forces were killed and 22 allied Iraqi militia were killed, Over 1,070 terrorists and other insurgents were killed and 500 captured.
October 5–December 8The First Battle of Swat took place after more than 3,000 Pakistani troops were sent to Swat Valley and Shangla in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan, to confront TTP and the TNSM, resulting in more than killing more than 290 terrorists and capturing 143 more. Pakistani forces suffered 18 killed and 48 captured.
October 7Dokka Umarov, the President of Ichkeria of Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (an unrecognised pro-independence movement that controlled most of Chechnya in Russia) abolished the movement announced the creation of the terrorist group Caucasus Emirate and declared himself its Emir.
November or DecemberAAS formally acknowledged being derived from AAI, and reverted to using that name.[13][75]
DecemberThe existence of the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) was officially announced under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud.

2008[edit]

DatesEvents
UnknownOperation Enduring Freedom – Caribbean and Central America begins[76]
JanuaryOperation Phantom Strike ends having disrupted the terrorist network disrupted in Iraq. 11 US servicemen were killed, over 330 terrorist were killed and 83 were captured.
January 8–July 28Operation Phantom Phoenix took place: Following the success of Operation Phantom Thunder and Operation Phantom Strike, the offensive operation aimed to further reduce violence and secure Iraq's population throughout central and northern Iraq particularly in Baghdad. The Operation was only a partial victory, in particular, the Coalition succeeded in clearing Diyala Governorate almost entirely of insurgent forces; insurgents in Nineveh Governorate manage to maintain a significant presence in Mosul and the surrounding areas, albeit isolated; and Kirkuk province was declared secured by the Iraqi Army in May but the insurgents returned. Multinational Force Iraq lost 839 killed, 11 captured and 2 missing, whilst the terrorist and other insurgents lost 890 killed and over 2,500 captured.
April 6The Battle of Shok Valley takes place: U.S. Aircraft supporting U.S. Special forces, as well as Afghan special forces raided a fortified town in Shok Valley of Nuristan Province in Afghanistan, occupied by HIG in an attempt to eliminate Gulbuddin Hekmatyar. The raid failed to eliminate him, U.S. forces suffered multiple wounded, ANA suffered 2 killed and multiple wounded.
June 2The Danish embassy bombing in Islamabad in Pakistan, by al-Qaeda killed between 6-8 people and injured over 20.
July 13The Battle of Wanat took place: between 200-500 militants from the Taliban, al-Qaeda and HIG attacked an outpost in Nuristan province in Afghanistan, garrisoned by US and Afghan troops, the attack was repulsed, 9 US soldiers and 15 more wounded, 4 Afghan soldiers were wounded and at least 40 Taliban fighters killed during the assault.[77]
July 29–August 11Operation Augurs of Prosperity took place, US and Iraqi forces following up Operation Phantom Phoenix's success in Iraq's Diyala province the Operation aimed to clear the last remnants of ISI terrorists and other insurgents and terrorists from the Governorate. The operation was a success, with Iraqi security forces having achieved half of the goals set for the operation, with 15 terrorists and other insurgents killed and 800 captured, Iraqi Security forces lost 51 killed and Awakening Councils losing 7 killed.
August 7The Battle of Bajaur begins: Pakistani forces launch an offensive to retake, Bajaur in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan, from TTP, Al-Qaeda and the TNSM.
August 18The Uzbin Valley ambush takes place when French, Afghan and US troops were ambushed by HIG and Taliban insurgents in Kabul province, Afghanistan, the coalition troops with air support and reinforcements eventually defeated the terrorists and insurgents. French forces lost 10 killed and 24 wounded, whilst Afghan forces lost 4 wounded; the terrorists and insurgents lost between 13-80 killed with another 30 wounded.
August 20–22The Battle of Kismayo (2008) takes place: Al-Shabaab terrorists, allied with local Islamist militias[78] that were formerly of the ICU, captured the port in Somalia.
September 11The Cyberwarfare section of JSOC shut down every jihadist Website that was known to them.[79]
September 17The Islamic Jihad of Yemen carryout the attack on the American Embassy in Yemen, killing 6 and injuring 12 people.
October 26The Abu Kamal raid takes place: U.S. SOF cross into Syria via helicopter and eliminated Abu Ghadiya who was primarily involved in al-Qaeda's logistic effort in Iraq and assisted in smuggling weapons, money and fighters across the Syria-Iraq border and several other militants.
November 26–29The Mumbai attacks in India by LeT terrorists kill 156-164 and injure 293-600+ people

2009[edit]

DatesEvents
JanuaryAl-Qaeda in Yemen/Islamic Jihad of Yemen and al-Qaeda in Saudi Arabia merged to form Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP).
January 30The War in Somalia (2006–09) ends after Ethiopian forces withdraw from Somalia.
January/FebruaryThe War in Somalia (2009–present) begins.
February 28The Battle of Bajaur ends: Pakistani forces killing 1,500 terrorists and wounding 2,000 more, whilst the Pakistanis lost 97 killed, 404 wounded and 5 captured, 176+ tribesmen were also killed.
April 16The Insurgency in the North Caucasus begins.
April 26–June 14Operation Black Thunderstorm takes place: The Pakistani military captures a number of districts in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province in Pakistan, from TTP and TNSM, killing 1,475 terrorists and capturing 114 more, whilst the Pakistani's lost over 150 killed, 95 captured (18 rescued) and 317 wounded.
Late AprilThe Leader of the Caucasus Emirate announced the revival of the Riyad-us Saliheen (having not display any activity for more than four years) as Riyad-us Saliheen Brigade of Martyrs that was led by Said Buryatsky.
May 16–July 15As part of the third phase of Operation Black Thunderstorm, the Second Battle of Swat takes place: Pakistani forces fought for control of Swat Valley in Pakistan, against TTP, TNSM and Lashkar-e-Islam (LeI) terrorists, eventually returning it to government control, killing 2,088 terrorists whilst the Pakistanis lost 168 killed, 454 wounded.
June 19–December 12Operation Rah-e-Nijat takes place: The aim of the operation by the Pakistani military was to regain control of South Waziristan in Pakistan, from the TTP, IMU, Jama'at al-Jihad al-Islami/IJU
American and British special forces operators at Tora Bora, December 2001.
Multinational warships assigned to CTF-150 taking part in OEF–HOA, assemble in a formation.

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P3: Outline the terrorism methods used by key terrorist organisations

Terrorism is an act that threatens or carries out violence with the intention to disrupt, kill or coerce against a body or nation in order to impose will. This means that a lot of groups use this method to get what they want. The groups use a variety of methods, groups such as:

Al Qaeda, who mainly use suicide bombing methods, this is good, because it means there are lots of deaths. This leads to scare and forcing the Government to negotiate.

Another group, the IRA, the Irish Republican Army use assassinations and guerilla warfare tactics to cause terrorism.

The ETA, Euskadi Ta Askatasuna use bombing tactics. Destroying key economic targets in Spain, such…show more content…

The rise in terrorist activities means that more counter terrorist methods are mandatory.
Currently the Public Services counter terrorist threats reasonably well, especially since the Twin Towers were bombed. This bombing sparked a major increase in counter terrorism.
Now, terrorist activity has significantly lowered, this is because new acts have been passed to aid in countering terrorism.
The Counter terrorism Act 2008 was created, and gives Public Services the right to stop terrorism in many ways.
The methods used now are a lot more advanced, for example, airports used to be a lot easier to attack with terrorism, but now use a lot of security methods that were not around or used during the time the Twin Towers were bombed. Security measures such as metal detectors, CCTV cameras and sniffer dogs. Some of these security measures will have been in effect, but not mandatory. D1: Evaluate the impact of War, Conflict and terrorism on the UK Public Services.

War, conflict and terrorism impact’s the UK public Services greatly. In this passage we are going to evaluate the impact of this.

With war and terrorism it is going to cost the Ministry of Defence (MOD). This is because they are going to have to spend money on training the troops, buying more ammunition and equipment etc. In this current economic state it is not easy for the government to fund the MOD needs.

The Public Services will also benefit from some

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